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seit dem 03.05.2006

According to ZIMMERMANN (1980), HOHMANN, LAMES/ LETZELTER (2002) the following general possibilities can improve the game-relevant coordinative competences:


Variation in the sequence of movement of soccer game techniques (e.g. passing variations)
Variation of information reception (e.g. masking of information fragments)
Alteration of exterior conditions (e.g. diminishment of action range)
Combination of movement skills (technical-tactical chain of actions)
Increase of accuracy requests (esp. while passing, shooting, crossing)
Maximization of movement speed (e.g. while breakaway, fast counterattacks, etc.)
Practicing after (pre-)strains (only soccer players with a high technical skill level)
Practicing under mental stress conditions (noise, additional tasks, etc.)
Varying information and creating situations with multiple-choice-decisions (e.g. using several balls)

In scientific training literature there is no empirically secured system of coordination training methods yet like there is for fitness training. But following methods can be allocated to coordination training (cf. illus. 1)




Variation Method (variation of sensorial demands: variation of programs, parameters and conditions)
Combination Method (unusual, simultaneous und gradual combination of different movements and actions)
Contrast Method (application of consciously perceived contrast experiences)
Stress Method (practice under varying information requests and coordinative stress conditions)
Overpotential Method (cf. stress method; increase of requirements that exceed the normal and expected level of the game to create an “inventory” of possibilities how to act)
Game Method (complex-variable, situational competition-specific plays)
Trial-and-Error-Method (individual, creative testing of movement and action solutions, also “(co-)incidental learning"; cf. former street-soccer)

Following ROSTOCK/ ZIMMERMANN (1997) we deduce the structure of coordination training in soccer as illustrated below:




The General (ability-oriented) Coordination Training (cf. ability model HIRTZ 1985) comprises training and development of general coordinative abilities. Direct consequences for soccer-specific competences cannot be expected. Though there exist indirect, positive consequences for the quality of technique acquisition.
The Soccer-oriented (skill-oriented) Coordination Training develops soccer-specific techniques under unusual, partly even non-conform conditions according to the rules of soccer. These techniques become firmly established because of a methodical change of various information requirements (visual, tactile, etc.) and stress conditions (time stress, physical strain and mental stress, etc.) (cf. NEUMAIER 1999).
The Coordinative (competence-oriented) Special Training develops soccer-specific competences by means of characteristic combination of different motor resources (concerning physical, psychological, social, cognitive, etc.). These resources are individually characterized und organized in a compensatory way (cf. GLASAUER 2003).




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